Nature trail

Rotten birch

-These kind of rotten trees are important for the forests natural diversity. Thousands of endangered mushroom and insect species life in rotten trees. Also many birds nest in the trees cracks. If all the fallen trees are taken out of the forst, there wouldn't be enaugh rotten trees left for the species that inhabit them.

-Nowadays rotten trees are valued and are usually left in the forst. Sometimes rotten trees are even made on purpose by cutting low quality trees down. To help those birds that use tree cracks to nest in wooden birdhouses are made for them.

-On this rotten birch grows Fomes. Fomes is a mushrooms species which prefers rotten birche to grow on. Up to the mid 1800 Fomes was a significant good. It was used to make tinder which was used to light fire. Tinder was made from the inside of the mushroom. The substance was the made into thin sheets for easier transportation. Tinder has been utilized for 10 000 years.


3. Tar kilns

  • From the 1600 tar has been produced in these kinds of pits named tar kilns. The tar was then shipped trough Saimaa to be sold in Lappeenranta and further away in Viipuri.

     

  • Tar was mabe by deriving it from the wood and roots of pine in these kind of tar kilns you sea here. Out of the kiln the tar drain trough the tar tube into the barrels. When tar was made for export the kilns were big, their diameter reaching from 9 up to 20 meters. One qubic meter of pine food and roots produced about 30 liters of tar.

     

  • Producing tar was from the 1600 up to the 1850 one of the most important ways of using forest in large parts of Finland. Saimaa and Pohjanmaa were the biggest producers of tar. Tar was also Finlands most important export good. In the early 1860 25 billion liters of tar was exported (200 000 barrels).

     

  • Nowadays original tar kiln tar is wanted again. The demand isnt nearly as big as before but pine tar is still needed. Its used in traditional building and wooden boats.

7. The life cycle of a commercial forest

  • These seedling will on day become a fully grown commercial forest. In 80 years these planted pine seedlings will be grown large enaugh to be harvested.

     

     

  • Finnish forestry mimics the forests natural development and tries to mantain natures diversity. In thinning trees who are to small are removed. Later in felling the forest is cut to mimic a forest fire or any other natural disaster. After this the cut area is planted with tree seedlings, sown whit tree seeds, or it is left to grow back naturally. In Finland seedlings and tree seeds are more commonly used because the forst grows back faster.A

     

  • Mixed forests are more commonly preferred in finnish commercial forestry. This planted area will also most likely be thinned into a mixed forest. Mixed forests are preferred because of their natural looks and resilience against natural disasters.

     

  • Growing northern forests is a long-term project. Only after a long time can you know if the decisions you made were right, when the seedlings you once planted are sold as logs.

The black woodpecker

- A black woodpecker has visited this spruce. This spruce is hollow from the base, which allows ants to inhabit it. You can see big cracks in the tree caused by the black woodpecker drumming its beak againts the wood of the spruce. The black woodpecker then uses its long tongue to feed on the ants inside.

- The black woodpecker is a easly identifiable bird. It's noticeably larger than the other woodpeckers, and fully black expect for a bright red spot on the top of its head. The drumming that the black woodpecker produces are long easly hearable seauences. In its flight the bird shouts KRY-KRY-KRY. When it,s landing you can hear a prolonged KLIIE sound. The black woodpeckers characteristic sound in the spring is KUI-KUI-KUI.

- This spruce inhabits ants becasue of a fungal parasite called root-rot. The parasites rotten tree mass is a perfect place for ants to inhabit. Trees rotten by this parasite also fall easly in storms because of their rotten base.